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Military Genius
The Roman Republic is famous for its military campaigns and well-designed weapons, which were the most important factors for their army’s countless victories. Perfect weapons and tools gave high morale to the Roman soldiers. As a result, the Roman army dominated the Mediterranean and then further expanded Rome’s territory to Africa, Europe and Asia.

Roman Testudo

The Roman testudo was the symbol of Roman tactical and practical formation. The main component was the large rectangular shields that belonged to each legionnaire, able to advance up, thus, have close contact with the enemy lines.

The Testudo was deployed in both offensive and defensive situations. Through various commands from a centurion to the legionnaires, the formation could change rapidly which could suddenly disorient the enemy and reverse the battle outcome.

All Roads Lead to Rome
Romans were geniuses in civil engineering. Not only did they master the technology necessary for effective transportation and communication but they had also invented many fine machines for both sea and land transportations, for measuring distances and time, and for building roads. Many of these technologies are still widely used today.

Tabula Peutinger
At present the Tabula of Peutinger is conserved in the Austrian National Library in Vienna. The road map was not draw to scale, and was not to true cardinal orientation. It showed mainly the distance and the cross-roads but not the land topography.

This map reflected the world as known in the late 3rd century AD at the apex of the Roman expansion.

Map Legend
Black ink – Names of towns, names of roads
Red ink – All roads, names of important cities, provinces, regions
Yellow – Land mass
Green / Blue ink – Seas, rivers and baths
Other inks (brown, grey, yellow, pink, red) – Mountains

Building Rome
While the Roman Empire continued to expand, many large scale construction projects that ranged from roads and bridges to bathhouses, aqueducts, theatres, arenas to majestic monuments were engaged.
Roman Aqueduct
The aqueducts were among the greatest achievements in the ancient world. Constructed with numerous arches, the Roman aqueduct was able to bring water from distant sources into the cities and towns.

Aqueducts moved water through gravity. With a slight downward gradient of 1%, the water could flow from a place which was 18 km away to the city. The aqueducts were the most glorious piece of the ancient water system.

This ancient structure is still in use today in various places such as New York City.

Lifestyle & Entertainment
Romans love to relax in public baths or to attend popular sport events in the Colosseum such as gladiators fighting, chariot racing or the slaughter of beasts.

Helmet from Maximus

Different from the other gladiator’s exhibits, this helmet is from the movie The Gladiator where Russell Crowe played Maximus and wore it when he acted as the general in the Roman army.